1. In the Summary, click on
Inspect with TrustInSoft CI Analysis (under the snippet of code) to launch TrustInSoft CI Analyzer:
2. Once TrustInSoft CI Analyzer has launched, take a look at the interface:
The Overview panel displays information about the analysis
The Interactive code panel displays a "normalized" version of the code that preserves the semantics of the program
The Source code panel shows the original source code
1. Observe how the Interactive code panel points to the undefined behavior:
The second line highlights the statement in the normalized code where the undefined behavior was found. The first line highlights the corresponding functional property, which TrustInSoft CI could not verify.
Note the corresponding source code statement line 31 in grey in the Source code panel:
Let's understand why the predicate
\valid(buf+i) did not hold, by inspecting the variables
2. In the Interactive code panel, click on
\valid(buf+i), then look at the Values widget (bottom):
The widget displays the selected expression
i along with the union of all its values until the undefined behavior was found. Since
i gets incremented at each iteration of the
while loop enclosing the undefined behavior,
i takes several values so an integer range between 1 and 33.
3. Similarly, click on
buf to look at its values in the Values widget:
buf is a pointer, whose value is the result of the call to
malloc in the function
caesar_encrypt line 26. The memory space allocated by
malloc is represented using the symbolic notation
4. You can click anywhere in the code on
buf or any other expression, to see their values before and after the clicked statement in the Values widget:
5. Right click on
i and select Track this term, then click on
buf to simultaneously inspect the values of
6. In the Values widget, click on the link __malloc_caesar_encrypt_l26 to see its values. Then, click on the cell to expand it:
7. Click on Per path to look at the values of
__malloc_caesar_encrypt_l26 for each iteration of the
while loop enclosing the undefined behavior:
Each "master" row corresponds to one iteration of the loop. For example, the first row shows
i = 1, which means that the statement with the undefined behavior is first reached when
i = 1.
8. Click on Emission rank in the column headers, then Sort Descending to display the last loop iteration first, that is where the analysis stopped because of the undefined behavior:
In the last iteration (top "master" row) so right before the analysis stopped because of the undefined behavior, the code is accessing
buf with an offset
i equal to 33:
9. Finally, click on
__malloc_caesar_encrypt_l26 in the Expression column (see above screenshot) to see its type:
__malloc_caesar_encrypt_l26 is an array of char of length 33
(char ). The access with an offset of 33 is therefore out of bounds and it is an undefined behavior.
Let's find where the length of the array comes from.
1. In the Interactive code panel, right click on
buf inside the code statement below the functional property, then click on Show Defs.
The Show Defs Statement widget (left) moves up into view and displays the previous write statement to
buf (see video capture below).
2. Click on this previous statement to point the Interactive code panel to it:
The problem is the integer literal 33 that is passed to
buf contains the result of the encryption of
str, the code should not allocate a buffer of constant size but one of the same size as
Before we fix the root cause of the undefined behavior, let's summarize what happened and what we did:
TrustInSoft CI verifies the presence of undefined behaviors by propagating the program's input values, statement by statement, along the analyzed path. As part of the process, it computes for each statement the current "memory state", that can be roughly defined as the current value of all the variables.
We first analyzed the undefined behavior by inspecting the values of the variables at the program point where the undefined behavior was found. Then, we explored backwards the memory states, until we found the root cause of the undefined behavior.
We used the Values widget to isolate the program point where the undefined behavior occurred and to explore the values of the variables, and Show Defs to move to previous program points / memory states.