Go beyond your test suite

On the previous page, we proved the absence of undefined behaviors on the test.

Add more analyses

As you have successfully verified your first program, you may stop the configuration effort here if you are happy with the coverage of this analysis. After each new commit pushed to GitHub, TrustInSoft CI will keep running the analysis to check for non-regression.

Alternatively, you may add more analyses in your Analyses configuration to catch more undefined behaviors and put more trust in your code.

Look at dead statements

1. Go back to the latest build without undefined behavior of our demo-caesar:

2. Click on Inspect of the (first) analysis.

3. Once TrustInSoft CI Analyzer has loaded the new analysis, take a look at the Overview panel, which provides a few statistics about our test. In particular, the statement coverage is 94%, meaning that some statements are not reached by the analysis so not tested:

4. Click on the Statements tab (bottom) and set the Reachability filter to unreachable to see all the dead statements. 6 statements were not reached:

5. Click on the last statement in file caesar.c line 60 in the list. The Interactive code panel highlights this statement in blue:

From the code, it looks like a test that takes as input, a string with a character "greater" than "Z", should be added to reach that statement.

6. You can do the same exercise with the other dead statements highlighted in red.

Analyze the boundaries

Recall that demo-caesar is intended to be used with any input strings or shift values. Can you guess what you would get with the shift_value INT_MIN?

Another undefined behavior as shown here:

abs_x is a signed integer so can only hold values between -2147483648 and 2147483647. Since x contains the shift value INT_MIN = -2147483648, calculating the opposite of x causes a signed overflow.

Analyzing with input values approaching or crossing the boundaries is an effective way of finding new undefined behaviors.

Use fuzzing

Finally, you may also use fuzzing to automatically generate lots of relevant inputs.

Generalize your analysis suite


In formally verifying your tests, TrustInSoft CI goes far beyond "classic" testing, since it can detect the most subtle undefined behaviors, even when applied to well-tested code that has never revealed any problem.

To increase statement and value coverage, you can always specify more tests in the Analyses configuration file.

But what if you would like to both achieve full statement and value coverage and stick to a decent amount of analyses?

The solution is called analysis generalization. It consists in "relaxing" the inputs of your existing analyses by specifying, as program inputs, ranges or sets of values instead of single values.

How it works

Analysis generalization is not available in TrustInSoft CI yet so this section shows a preview.

Let's come back to our project demo-caesar.

Generalize with all shift values

We know from Analyze the boundaries that the shift value INT_MIN reveals an undefined behavior.

To be fully confident that the user of this library will be able to choose any integer as shift value, let's say that we'd like to test and verify with all possible integer values.

Instead of creating 2322^{32}tests, we can re-use the current test and specify as shift value, with the special function tis_interval, an integer range between INT_MIN and INT_MAX instead of a single integer value:

int main(void)
    printf("\nTest 3: All shift values\n");
    int shift = tis_interval(INT_MIN, INT_MAX);
    gen_test(orig_str, str_len, shift);

After running the analysis again, the Values widget shows, with the notation --, that the shift value has been initialized to the interval [INT_MIN, INT_MAX]:

The Properties widget shows that 3 undefined behaviors have been detected:

The first row links to the undefined behavior described in Analyze the boundaries. It implies that the user should be prevented from choosing INT_MIN as shift value.

But what about the two other undefined behaviors? They both reveal a signed overflow, but on another part of the code as shown here:

The absolute value abs_shift of the input shift can take any value between 0 and 2147483647 and the input string is made of char values between 69 and 80 . Adding the two together triggers a signed overflow.

Let's assume that you've implemented a fix. The statement coverage increases to 96%. As you've tested with all input shifts, you are on the right path, but not fully there yet!

Generalize with all input strings

You know from Look at dead statements that some statements are not reached because the input string is missing some special characters.

Same as above. Instead of verifying on a limited number of additional input strings, you can specify, with the special function tis_make_unknown, an abstract input string representing all possible char arrays of a given size:

int main(void)
    printf("\nTest 4: All shift values and all string inputs\n");
    tis_make_unknown(orig_str, str_len-1);
    gen_test(orig_str, str_len, shift);

Let's run the analysis again and observe the results. There's no undefined behaviors.

Assuming the library is meant to be used with any shift value between -INT_MAX and INT_MAX and any input string of length 39, you have formally proved it is free of undefined behaviors!

As bonus, we get a statement coverage of 100%:

We introduced the special functionstis_internal and tis_make_unknown, which are part an API. You may also have noticed that the above Overview panel looks quite different than on TrustInSoft CI Analyzer.

These are part of analysis generalization, a unique feature, that is not yet available in TrustInSoft CI, but that we are already offering to our on-premise customers.

Contact us for more info

Last updated